Thoughts on Quantum Computing and engaging people into science

Recently, the Prime Minister of Canada Justin Trudeau amazed journalists by giving a short explanation of quantum computing. In the weeks after, many articles about quantum computing were written commending the president for explaining so eloquently this impenetrable new science. And while it is very exciting to have so many people engage with what is considered the next great frontier of computing, some of the explanations were rather disappointing, and because of the (perceived) complexity of quantum computing it is very easy to give the impression that it is even more magical and mysterious than it really is.

The biggest misconception that propagated was that the miracle of quantum computing is down to the wave-particle duality of fundamental components such as the proton, neutron, electron etc. The key to quantum computing in fact relies on the superposition of states: taking for example a proton, this has a property (which we don’t need to go into but you can read all about) called spin, which when measured in a laboratory will always be “up” or “down”. The fact that a stream of protons can also act as a wave is not the most relevant fact here.

So just quickly: what of the fact that spin is always measured as one of two states? It is that the only way of modelling mathematically the spin of a proton involves inherent randomness. It is possible to put the proton in an equal superposition of both up and down, with the binary result of an experiment only being resolved when actually measured, both up and down equally likely outcomes. Until then, the spin state is genuinely both up and down equally. But the very meaning of the word “quantum” implies the existence of distinct values and therefore no measurement can actually reveal the superposition we know is there. Rather,  in a sense, we force the universe into making a decision at the last possible moment!

So Justin Trudeau and various journalists are right in saying that a bit is binary but a qubit (quantum bit) can hold multiple values at the same time, but it is not the wave-particle duality that underlies this phenomenon.

Quantum computing is obviously far too complex a subject to go into further, but I strongly encourage you to do your own research. It is fantastic that this subject has been given more media attention, but any subject that captures your interest always deserves further research beyond journalistic simplifications. This post isn’t so much about quantum computing itself, but a reminder that initial engagement is just the first step!

Written by William A. Lebreton.

More trees, please!

A few weeks ago, I attended the Presidential Address at the Institute of Mathematics and it’s Applications (IMA). Using this, the IMA President Chris Linton argued the need for bridging the distinctions between “Pure” and “Applied” mathematics. Without giving too many spoilers, he also put the case that the “success path” for people at university is often seen as further academic study, eventually leading to professorship. Progressing into being a teacher, actuary, or any other job is culturally, perhaps, seen as a failure. In summary, I took Chris’ Address as a call for action: for changing the culture of success in mathematics to being more balanced across academic, industrial, educational, and other options. If you’re interested in mathematics, I would recommend going to one of the branch meetings where Chris will be repeating this talk.

It is this same belief that led me to start full time working on Fuza a little over 3 months ago. You can see an example of maths applied to industry in this post. Indeed perhaps more broadly, I believe we should be using the science we already know:

British greenery: Sunshine not often included (Letchworth Garden City)
  • It has been shown recently that 30 minutes of visits of green spaces reduces instances of depression and high blood pressure [source].
  • In another study, countryside walks were associated with reduced rumination (associated again with depression). [source]
  • There is a weight of science supporting the benefits of urban trees [source]

To me, it seems logical and worthwhile that some city should conduct a practical experiment to see if we could reduce depression, perhaps by simply planting some trees. It seems sensible to conduct a small trial, in order to get some fast feedback. The alternative to a local trial is either to do nothing, or wait for a central government policy to implement it everywhere.

In my town of Letchworth Garden City (UK), we are lucky to have a heritage foundation who do lots of good work, for example converting one of our 100-year-old houses into an eco-home [source]. Experiments do happen, but I would love to see more.

More countryside (Bristol – you can see the suspension bridge in the distance)

As a society we are, according to me at least, not implementing enough of these experiments. I have written this blog in an attempt to inspire some of my local decision makers to try more things for the benefit of their fellow citizens.

This is of course just one piece of science that I think it would be interesting to implement. Perhaps there are things you care about that we should be experimenting/implementing within our communities or businesses. I hope we can all do our bit to help get science used in reality. In the meantime, perhaps I will go out for a countryside walk.


Technical Debt

According to wikipedia…

Technical debt is “a concept in programming that reflects the extra development work that arises when code that is easy to implement in the short run is used instead of applying the best overall solution”. I’d like to talk to you about something more physical instead:

A Technical Debt Tree

First, someone planted a hedge. Then the bushes grew into trees, weren’t good as a hedge any more, but they left anyway… and built a wall too. After some time, they wanted to keep sheep in, so added some barbed wire to stop them climbing over the wall. And now we have a (rather amusing looking) bodge: it would have been better to rip it all down and have a proper fence instead. I think you’ll agree that (whilst quite attractive with the greenery) it is a bit of a mess. Let’s translate this now into software development.

How do you know if you have technical debt?

Almost by definition:

  • New features are slow
  • Bug fixes are slow
  • Developers say the code is crap and messy
  • There is extensive documentation separate from the code itself
  • New starters take a long time getting up to speed

What can I do about technical debt?

Like other Agile Coaches, I’ve seen lots of ways teams can get better at this:

  • Realise as a team that there is a problem
  • Allow developers the time they want to get the code good, as part of each story
  • Add “technical debt” stories / work parcels
  • Write (and live by) coding standards
  • Write (and live by) definitions of done
  • Do code reviews
  • Consider trying pair programming

There are lots of other things you can do too. I’d recommend avoiding a big rewrite and do improvement incrementally if you can, as this increases your feedback. Use your noggin: If you’re refactoring code, do the most-often-changed bits first. And if your stakeholders are hesitant to invest in this, measure your Lead Time and show them how it gets better on the parts of code you’ve improved.

Any comments on this topic would be great! Do you have other ideas for removing technical debt?

Research in Agile

This post is inspired by a question from one of our readers, Lukasz. I’m going to outline how I find and examine research on organisations, agile/lean, and culture. Hopefully this will inspire you to dig more into what stuff is true and what is just crap.

Finding the genuine facts among the huge volume of opinion is hard. It’s hard in politics, it’s hard in management, and it’s hard in social science. As a mathematician, I come from a world things are either true or not, and I continue to find exploring ambiguous and opinion-rife research challenging.

Finding an interesting topic

First you need to know what you want to know. Inspiration for what to research can be found in case studies, papers, blogs, books, conversations, your own experience etc. I personally find my ways of thinking most easily challenged by experience, books, videos, and conferences (probably because these are accessible!).

Finding the research

Once you’ve something you want to know, and the vocabulary to describe it, I’d recommend googling with specific terms. For example, if you are interested in the impact of management on team members, I’d recommend something like: “role hierarchy team impact” or something similar. Stay away from buzzwords like “management” or “agile”.

Google scholar is good for finding paper titles, but often due to publishers you will have to pay for them. Knowing the title, if you search again specifically for those papers/authors you can often find a free version on the author’s academic page, or at least some related content.

Assessing research quality

  1. Be cynical. Assume everyone is lying and check their “facts”.
  2. Beware sweeping statements. It is hard to have good social science that is very general.
  3. Use your noggin. E.G. Is the sample size big enough? Have they got a control group?

Beware research fashion

Just because something is popular to talk about (or highly cited) doesn’t make it good. A good example is Myers Briggs Type Indicators. Yes it is popular, and arguably helpful to some, but that doesn’t make it true or “the way to classify people”. Similarly some leadership styles are more heavily researched than others. The weight of research can be tempting to give in to, but keep sifting through, especially when the research is about models to help understand a topic (rather than an absolute truth).


Once you’ve something you think looks solid, a good test is to try it yourself! Run an experiment relevant to your situation, and see if you get results in line with the theory. Then tell other people what you’ve learned. (Yes I’m ignoring confirmation bias etc.)

If you have other techniques, or questions or suggested improvements to my ways of researching, please do share them in the comments!